Impact of seasonal variation, age and smoking status

Abstract

Background: To investigate the relationship of human semen parameters with season, age and smoking status. Methods: The present study used data from subjects recruited into an ongoing cross-sectional study on the relationship between environmental agents and semen characteristics. Our population consisted of 306 patients who presented to the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital for semen evaluation. Sperm concentration and motility were measured with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored using Tygerberg Kruger strict criteria. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between semen parameters and season, age and smoking status, adjusting for abstinence interval. Results: Sperm concentration in the spring was significantly higher than in winter, fall and summer (p < 0.05).

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Similarly, everything needs to be tested and investigated to arrive at viable solutions. In the trading field, every new trading platform gets tested and investigated before they are presented to the traders for actual and realistic trading. But before even this, a few traders make themselves the samples for such applications and they become the sample population on which the new methods and the strategies get tested. Now, this becomes a good example for the other traders who go by the results and experiences of the other traders. In a way, this sample population of traders becomes the testers for the others in taking and making decisions. They help in giving the foreplay for such trading platforms and become a very good and important source helping the other traders. This happens with trading applications of all types, some good ones like the bitcoin trader as well as the fraudulent ones.

But the success or failure in trading with any of these platforms has absolutely no correlation with whether the person is an experienced trader or a novice trader.

There was suggestive evidence of higher sperm motility and percent of sperm with normal morphology in the spring than in the other seasons. There were no statistically significant relationships between semen parameters and smoking status, though current smokers tended to have lower sperm concentration. We also did not find a statistically significant relationship between age and semen parameters. Conclusions: We found seasonal variations in sperm concentration and suggestive evidence of seasonal variation in sperm motility and percent sperm with normal morphology. Although smoking status was not a significant predictor of semen parameters, this may have been due to the small number of current smokers in the study.