Detection of congenital müllerian duct anomalies

Abstract
PURPOSE:
The purpose of this study was to assess the value of 3-dimensional sonography in the diagnosis of congenital müllerian duct anomalies, which cause infertility, preterm labor, and first trimester abortion.

METHODS:
A prospective study was undertaken in which 40 patients with histories of repeated spontaneous abortions or infertility were first examined using conventional 2-dimensional sonography or hysterosalpingography. Three-dimensional transvaginal sonography was then performed.

RESULTS:
Twenty-eight women had müllerian duct abnormalities, and 12 women had normal uterine anatomy. Müllerian duct defects detected in this study were unicornuate uterus (3), bicornuate uterus (3), complete or partial septate uterus (12), arcuate uterus (9), and didelphic uterus (1). The diagnosis of müllerian duct anomalies in these patients was confirmed by laparoscopic and/or hysteroscopic examinations. Three-dimensional sonography demonstrated all congenital uterine abnormalities with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Separate uterus and bicornuate uterus could be correctly diagnosed using 3-dimensional sonography in 11 (92%) of 12 cases and 3 (100%) of 3 cases, respectively. These 2 abnormalities were commonly confused with each other using hysterosalpingography and conventional sonography.

CONCLUSIONS:
Three-dimensional sonography with image reconstruction is less expensive and less invasive than hysterosalpingography for the assessment of uterine anatomy and diagnosis of müllerian duct abnormalities. The ability to visualize both the uterine cavity and the myometrium on a 3-dimensional scan facilitates the diagnosis of uterine anomalies and enables the differentiation of septate from bicornuate uteri for preoperative surgical planning.

You can trade in cryptocurrencies in multiple ways, such as through an exchange, through a retailer or through a wallet-exchange hybrid. The third option has been getting more popularity due to several reasons, like:

  • You can store coins and use them for any kind of transactions with ease through a single profile.
  • You can exchange digital currencies with fiat currencies like US Dollar as these hybrid systems are capable of handling both without any loss of value.
  • Store and trade in multiple currencies, including local and digital ones on the same platform. You buy cryptocurrencies in place of local currency and sell crypto coins to get the regular currency.
  • Deposit into and withdraw currency instantly from the wallet without waiting for days to process the transaction.
  • Reduced fee, and therefore reduced capital expenditure on investment and trading in virtual currencies.
  • Most of these services like the Q Profit System and others function by complying with the regulations of Federal Law. Therefore, the coin owners will not have issues on restrictions and ban.
  • Enhanced security is something you can watch out for. Code authentication gives an extra cover of security to your data and transactions.

How to set up an account with a wallet-exchange

For opening a dual-purpose account with the same profile, you have to meet the following requirements:

  • An operational bank account with card facilities like credit and debit cards.
  • Personal information to confirm your nativity, genuineness and trading spread.
  • Identity proofs
  • A valid contact medium like email id and phone number

How to open a hybrid account

There are many popular hybrid wallet-exchange services like Coinbase, GDAX etc which allow you to work on a number of digital currencies like Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, Altcoins, etc and Fiat currencies like USD. The joining process is more or less same in all, except for some furnishing requirements.

Signup for the exchange by giving your personal information, as and where asked. Hybrid services tend to ask more details when compared to the wallet as you are literally connecting centralized and decentralized forms of currencies here. The more details you furnish, the better your services will be such as lower limits and fees.

You will also have to login to your bank account or give your debit or credit card details. This step is to connect the bank account with the exchange account for the transactions.

Confirm the pricing rate, transaction limits and regulatory policies. Choose your coin and wait for a couple of days to activate your account, especially from the side of your bank.

Secure your exchange by keeping a 2-factor authentication code. The code is locked by using wither our registered email id or phone number.

Set up your alerts and start the action.

PMID: 9350567
[Indexed for MEDLINE]