The purpose of this study was to assess the value of 3-dimensional sonography in the diagnosis of congenital müllerian duct anomalies, which cause infertility, preterm labor, and first trimester abortion.
A prospective study was undertaken in which 40 patients with histories of repeated spontaneous abortions or infertility were first examined using conventional 2-dimensional sonography or hysterosalpingography. Three-dimensional transvaginal sonography was then performed.
Twenty-eight women had müllerian duct abnormalities, and 12 women had normal uterine anatomy. Müllerian duct defects detected in this study were unicornuate uterus (3), bicornuate uterus (3), complete or partial septate uterus (12), arcuate uterus (9), and didelphic uterus (1). The diagnosis of müllerian duct anomalies in these patients was confirmed by laparoscopic and/or hysteroscopic examinations. Three-dimensional sonography demonstrated all congenital uterine abnormalities with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Separate uterus and bicornuate uterus could be correctly diagnosed using 3-dimensional sonography in 11 (92%) of 12 cases and 3 (100%) of 3 cases, respectively. These 2 abnormalities were commonly confused with each other using hysterosalpingography and conventional sonography.
Three-dimensional sonography with image reconstruction is less expensive and less invasive than hysterosalpingography for the assessment of uterine anatomy and diagnosis of müllerian duct abnormalities. The ability to visualize both the uterine cavity and the myometrium on a 3-dimensional scan facilitates the diagnosis of uterine anomalies and enables the differentiation of septate from bicornuate uteri for preoperative surgical planning.
You can trade in cryptocurrencies in multiple ways, such as through an exchange, through a retailer or through a wallet-exchange hybrid. The third option has been getting more popularity due to several reasons, like:
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For opening a dual-purpose account with the same profile, you have to meet the following requirements:
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There are many popular hybrid wallet-exchange services like Coinbase, GDAX etc which allow you to work on a number of digital currencies like Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, Altcoins, etc and Fiat currencies like USD. The joining process is more or less same in all, except for some furnishing requirements.
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[Indexed for MEDLINE]