The aim of this study was to investigate of the relationship of ovarian stromal volume, measured using three-dimensional ultrasound, to serum androgen concentrations in patients with polycystic ovaries. Serum gonadotrophin, oestradiol and androgen concentrations and ovarian volume measurements were obtained in the early follicular phase from 100 women undergoing assisted conception treatment cycles. Group 1 contained 50 women with regular menstrual cycles and normal ovarian morphology, group 2 contained 24 women with regular menstrual cycles and polycystic ovaries seen on ultrasound scan and group 3 contained 26 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance, Scheffé’s procedure and Pearson’s correlation. Total ovarian volume (15.7-16.1 versus 11 ml, P < 0.05), stromal volume (14.5 versus 9.4 ml, P < 0.05) and thecal steroid concentrations were significantly greater in groups 2 and 3. Stromal volume was positively correlated with serum androstenedione concentrations (r = 0.45, P = 0.0019 in group 3) but was not correlated with any other endocrine parameter.
The IPO system goes in a very calculative and statistical manner. The two essential elements of a public offering should be balanced, that is the funding expectation of the company going public and the investors who aim to make some money through the dividend profit. Cash flow lives and grows through calculations and IPO has some well-structured formulae to bring about this perfect balance, the dividend payout ratio being the center-point.
The implications of payout ratio
Consider a company named Bitcoin Trader in this scenario, offering IPO and managing the shares via the payout ratio. The ratio, going by simple definition is the amount paid to the shareholders as their dividend relative to the net total income of the company over the concerned period of time like a financial quarter or semi-annually. The remaining amount of the income after paying off the dividends is used by the company to expand its operation or any reconstruction work, which is called the retained earnings.
Now, we can see how this ratio balancing affects the working of the company.
The aforementioned trading company is new and trying to establish itself in the current market and then slowly expand its wings. This obviously demands funds, the higher the amount, the better for the company. IPO is a crucial method of raising funds and giving a professional style of promotion to the company. It will try to divert most or all of the net income to the expansion work like product research development, market study and entry, marketing and so on. The resultant negligible or zero payout ratio is ignored considering that the company is yet to attain maturity.
The same cannot be expected for an established frontrunner in the market, which can comfortable give out the deserved dividends to the shareholders. A low or zero payout ratio here brings down the morale of the investors and the public reputation of being trustworthy.
Another significance of higher payout ratio is that the investors get the signal of the company running in profits and brighter prospects for the future. The trading company is then likely to attract more investors and financial investors in the subsequent offering and other funding rounds. However, if the company tries to please its investors by paying high dividends, that s, having a near hundred percent payout ratio, very soon its sustenance will be under scanner.
A payout ratio which reflects the future growth prospects of the company and its present growth in a stable upward-going curve is considered to be the hallmark of a mature, sustainable and reliable company.
It was concluded that polycystic ovaries are characterized by increased ovarian stroma with associated overproduction of theca-derived steroids, particularly androstenedione.
Relationship of ovarian stromal volume and serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations in patients with PCOS. [Hum Reprod. 1999]
[Indexed for MEDLINE]