Parthenogenetic activation of marmoset

Abstract

Diversity is a term used in a positive sense, in most scenarios. Humans are diverse, populations are diverse and societies are diverse. Choices, recommendations, and decisions vary and that is why product and service providers give significance to product diversification in their strategies. By providing diverse choices, you are meeting the preferences of more proportion of the civilization, rather than one or two strata.

For example, banks provide you accounts with and without a checkbook. For a local farmer, managing a bank account is in itself a surmountable task, then why would he spend more of his money and brains for maintaining a more expensive checkbook account? On the contrary, consider a businessman doing wholesale delivery. His payments are numerous and his clients are spread, which makes check payment a convenient banking method.

 Diversity in microfinance to achieve financial inclusion

When you are promoting a financial scheme in a resourceful settlement like urban or semi-urban areas, advanced means of communication helps in penetrating deeper into the society and cover maximum target population. When the same is implemented in a rural setting, it gets puddled here and there. You need extra effort, pushing forces like Crypto VIP Club and diversified micro-elements to extend its reach and cover more and more targets. This is financial inclusion, where you are trying to spread financial decisions or systems through banks, smaller firms, credit unions, smart devices, mobile and internet banking, and even local lenders by specialized microfinance institutions or MFI.

 

The following are the elements which in a complimentary and coordinative fashion to achieve financial inclusion in the under-banked populations:

Formal financial firms: The high operational cost is something which pulls the major banking sector backward. The big public banks may spearhead these schemes but are managed on the ground by smaller firms like rural banks, agricultural banks, non-banking financial institutions, state and regional banks lately because of inducing commercial benefits within the microfinance systems.

Informal financial firms: The private financial banks, lending organizations, local money- lenders, savings collectors, supply shops, money-guards, government volunteers etc are the biggest forces which drive financial inclusion forward. Governments advise the rural populations to depend less on private money borrowing since they can rob them out their daily means of livelihood in worse scenarios.

Individually-owned or smaller financial establishments: Associations, credit unions, self-help groups, local welfare forums, village savings and loan associations etc get formed with the primary aim of standing with each other for the betterment of their neighborhood and villagers by following the welfare measures of the legislatures.

Non-Governmental Organizations or NGOs: Basically organized for social and economic development as a whole for under-developed regions, volunteers make innovative campaigns to spread the success of new schemes, but can sometimes get struck by the need for external funding.

Mammalian oocytes can be induced to resume meiosis without fertilization, and the resulting parthenogenetic embryos carry only maternal chromosomes. Human oocytes can be activated by many chemical and physical stimuli, but postimplantation studies of human parthenogenetic embryos are not ethically acceptable. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is a good model for studying primate parthenogenetic development postimplantation, since follicular aspiration, embryo transfer, and early postimplantation development of biparental embryos have already been described. Marmoset oocytes were either subjected to two series of six electrical pulses (DC; 2 kV/cm and 70 microsec) or were incubated in 7% ethanol in PBS. Ninety-two percent (68 of 74) and 20% (8 of 40) of marmoset oocytes were activated by electrical stimulus or ethanol, respectively. Parthenogenetic (n = 3) or in vitro-fertilized (n = 2) embryos were transferred at the 4-cell stage to synchronized recipient female marmosets (n = 5). Progesterone, chorionic gonadotropin, and inhibin in the peripheral plasma of recipient animals were measured. After 33 days of gestation, recipient animals were perfused and the uteri were collected. The 2 females that had received biparental embryos and 2 of the 3 females that had received parthenogenetic embryos displayed biochemical and histological evidence of implantation. This is the first report that a primate embryo comprising only parthenogenetic cells is capable of implantation. This highlights the need to scrutinize levels of parthenogenesis associated with human assisted reproductive technologies. Marmoset parthenogenones also provide a unique model for elucidating the roles of parental genomes in primate development.

PMID: 9828197
[Indexed for MEDLINE]