Large offspring syndrome in cattle and sheep

Abstract
Bovine and ovine embryos exposed to a variety of unusual environments prior to the blastocyst stage have resulted in the development of unusually large offspring which can also exhibit a number of organ defects. In these animals, the increased incidence of difficult parturition and of fetal and neonatal losses has limited the large-scale use of in vitro embryo production technologies commonly used in humans and other species. Four different situations have been identified that result in the syndrome: in vitro embryo culture, asynchronous embryo transfer into an advanced uterine environment, nuclear transfer and maternal exposure to excessively high urea diets. However, programming of the syndrome by all of these situations is unpredictable and not all of the symptoms described have been observed universally. Neither the environmental factors inducing the large offspring syndrome nor the mechanisms of perturbation occurring in the early embryo and manifesting themselves in the fetus have been identified.

Microfinancing has been in the limelight for quite some time in the developing countries, mainly because of its efforts to improve the livelihood of rural population and women, in particular. A majority of the schemes under microfinance tap on the cooperation between local communities and traditional skills.

These schemes have become successful largely in their objectives where rural financial firms and crowd-funding operations have given many, a reliable source of livelihood. Those with skills have found a way to fund their miniature start-ups like Qprofit System and active traditional occupation like agriculture, milling, arts etc.

What has been achieved, examples

The positive effects of microfinance cannot be generalized for the various initiatives in different parts of the world, but some of the major achievements can be listed.

Higher per capita income in a rural population: While microfinance-aided funding has resulted in the creation of employment and business activities of many deserved poor individuals, one or more reliable sources of income and independence have resulted in an increased per capita income in the under-developed populations.

Upliftment of socially and economically vulnerable sections:  With the income and an earning activity came economic independence, sustenance, and social respect. Microfinance has helped in planning the money expenditure of the poor along with increasing the money flow.

Women empowerment: This is the biggest focus of most of the microfinancing schemes across various settlements. Although there is still a long way to go, life has not been any better than now for the rural ladies because of an income, independence and social association.

Protection of traditional activities from ruins: In the mainstream commercial market, many commodities are being sold in the label of reputed traditional skills that were on the verge of being lost. Through microfinance-led funding and support, craftsmen and artisans are slowly getting their due recognition and monetary benefits.

Accessibility and penetration of services: As a part of the preliminary data collection, awareness campaigns, surveys, and NGO activities, the communities living in the backward and under-developed areas are seeing lights of development. When a government official has to reach a remote village for promoting government schemes, means of communication and transport and other basic amenities like power and water also come to their attention. When the scheme proposes a financial development, basic financial facilities are bound to reach them.

A link of communication with the governing bodies: A government scheme is in progress and the rural community will definitely have someone to reckon with for the governing people to address their issues.

A better responsible younger population: The system, altogether has brought in the active participation of young and the old population belonging to various economic and social sections of the citizens into a cooperative effort of social cause and economic growth. The budding generation has been active as a recipient as well as activists in the whole microprocess.

PMID: 9829550
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