Uroplakin gene expression by normal and neoplastic human urothelium

cDNA sequences for human uroplakins UPIa, UPIb, UPII, and UPIII were cloned and used to investigate uroplakin transcription by normal and neoplastic urothelial cells.

There is no hard and fast rule to become successful. In every field, even in a small routine activity, the winning streak differs from person to person and time to time. Still, in some events, there may be some basic frameworks to be built by the person for reaping success, the sweetness, and size of the fruit depending on other supporting factors. On many occasions, more than the do’s the do not’s can help us do better. When it comes to stock market assets that function with the tagline of ‘subjected to risks and are volatile’, precautionary negative warnings will always be of help.

Five do not’s in trading

Do not follow speculation as a universal rule: To some extent, traders who mostly use assumptions to help in their personal decision to buy an asset or to increase the pricing of an asset they intend to sell are successful in getting above par profits, but not always. trading based on speculations and assumptions can be the most disastrous method capable of creating maximum bankrupts.

Do not follow other traders: Copying a winner can make bring you theoretical successes in the initial attempts but can destroy the morale, goodwill and subsequent attempts to win can fail you. Think about copying for your English exam from the nearby rank holder who is answering a different set of questions. The questions may be same, but in different orders in the two question papers and even if you copy and write all correct answers, you are bound to fail due to the difference in the numbering. And, what if you are caught? Similarly, your friend may be trading on a currency pair through Quantum Code and you on a commodity such as gold. If he decides to go long on his assets and you do the same, the result may be different. A change in marriage season might soon arrive, taking the value of your asset in the negative direction.

Do not get over-excited: A quiz competition is going on and due to your continuous wins in a row, you were impatient to hear the next question until completion. The answer you gave was the opposite of what was asked. The same can happen in the trading market if you get over-excited on seeing a new share go up very quickly and you buy it. A new share must be dealt cautiously as you are unaware of the trend and can be very volatile.

Do not convert ambition into greed: You have a set target for the specified period and preferences for the assets. Just because you are on a winning streak, do not jump to buy too many assets of the same type or go for a highly speculative one, by eyeing on amassing more and more profits.

Do not get emotionally attached: Having a bad time in the market or not willing to sell off an asset you have been holding on for long, but currently bringing you losses alone? A broker is giving you hard time in trading, but has been good with your on the personal front. All these attachments are to be avoided.

Being a thorough professional capable of eliminating the ill components of the market will help you more.

Normal urothelium expressed mRNA for all four uroplakins, although UPIII could be detected only by ribonuclease protection assay. By in situ hybridization, UPIa and UPII were confined to superficial cells and UPIb was also expressed by intermediate cells. Cultured normal human urothelial cells showed a proliferative basal/intermediate cell phenotype and constitutive expression of UPIb only. Uroplakin expression by transitional cell carcinoma cell lines was related to their differentiated phenotype in vitro. RT4 cells expressed all uroplakins, VM-CUB-3 expressed three uroplakins, RT112 and HT1376 cells expressed only UPIb in high abundance, and COLO232, KK47, and EJ cells had no detectable expression. These results correlated with patterns of uroplakin expression in tumors. UPIa and UPII were detected superficially only in well differentiated transitional cell carcinoma papillae. UPIb was positive in seven of nine and overexpressed in five of nine noninvasive transitional cell carcinomas and was also present in four of eight invasive transitional cell carcinomas. Lymph node metastases retained the same pattern of UPIb expression as the primary tumor. Unlike the three differentiation-regulated uroplakins, UPIb may have an alternative role in urothelial cell/tissue processes.

PMID: 9846985 PMCID: PMC1866332 DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65709-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article